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Petroglyphs, Pictographs, and a Geoglyph: Rock Art of the American Southwest

Posted by Laurie Frost on September 23, 2010

Here’s something different. Petroglyphs are carved into rock; pictographs are painted on the surface, and “rock art” is an all-purpose general term that you can use should the first two fail. Sources for today’s post include The National Archives’ DocuAmerica,  National Park Service (NPS), and the Naval Air Weapons Station– China Lake. 

First, several pictographs photographed by David Hiser for the EPA’s DocuAmerica project posted at The National Archives website. 


Moab, Utah: Newspaper Rock, Indian Creek Historic State Park. 05/1972. . ARC Identifier 545679, ARC Identifier 545671 [close-up] 




Canyonlands National Park, Utah.  05/1972 ARC Identifier 545675  


Horse Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, Utah.  05/1972 ARC Identifier 545687   


The next three should be credited to the National Park Service (NPS): 

NPS photo. Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Nageezi, New Mexico


McKee Springs Petroglyphs 1

NPS. McKee Springs Petroglyph, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah & Colorado


 The following is from the National Park Service’s Mesa Verde website and describes the small image to the right: 

 According to one Hopi elder, this petroglyph, found on Mesa Verde’s Petroglyph Point Trail, may tell the story of two clans (the Mountain Sheep Clan and the Eagle Clan) separating from other people and returning to their place of origin.  Notice the boxy spiral shape?  This likely represents a sipapu, the place where Pueblo people believe they emerged from the earth (believed to be near the Grand Canyon).  You can also see the head and arms of a figure, and on the bottom right, a possible Katsina clan symbol. 



Now here’s something new to me: one of the largest collections of petroglyphs in the US is on a military installation in California, and only one site, Little Petroglyph Canyon, is open to the public — and that is on a very limited basis: 

Concentrated in secluded canyons of the volcanic Coso Range on the test ranges of the Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake, Calif., are thousands of visual reminders of people who, thousands of years ago, hunted and gathered their food in this high desert. The Coso Range Canyons contain the highest concentration of rock art in the Western Hemisphere. More than 6,000 images have been pecked, engraved, or abraded into the desert varnish or patina that forms on basalt rocks with time and weathering. 

No one knows for sure how old these petroglyphs are. A broad range of dates can be inferred from archaeological sites in the area and some artifact forms depicted on the rocks. Some of them may be as old as 16,000 years, some as recent as the 1800s. Designs range from animals to abstract to anthropomorphic figures. . . . 

After the Sept. 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center, security concerns resulted in the cancellation of all petroglyph tours. While security is still a number one priority, NAWS houses one of the largest concentrations of petroglyphs in North America. Therefore, with security in mind, the Commanding Officer of NAWS has adopted a new policy to allow limited tours to the public. 

All tours will be conducted with a minimum of two Command-approved escorts. These escorts are volunteers contributing their time to the tour groups so that you may see and enjoy the rock art of Little Petroglyph Canyon. … 

One image in the media gallery at the installation’s website is of a geoglyph, which I suppose means the image was carved onto the ground rather than on a rock face: 


” This starburst-shaped geoglyph was located on one of the pre-historic sites.” 

Here are some deer-shaped and sheep petroglyphs: 



And one of geometric shapes and another that “differs from the other petroglyph designs in the canyons at NAWCWD, China Lake”: 







To learn more about petroglyphs and pictographs, visit: 

The Three Rivers Petroglyph Site:  More than 21,000 glyphs of humans, animals,  plants,  geometric and abstract designs in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico. 

Slideshow of Rock Art at Chaco Culture HP 

Coso Rock Art District, China Lake, California. This site has an interesting essay on connection between shamanism and petroglyphs; unfortunately, its images are not in the the public domain. 

Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Southeast Alaska, Tongass National Forest 

Rock Images, NPS Archaeology page. List of locations of petroglyphs, but with many broken links. 



25 Responses to “Petroglyphs, Pictographs, and a Geoglyph: Rock Art of the American Southwest”

  1. Hendon Harris said

    More Vedic Vajrayana symbols continue to be discovered in North America. Hamsa the Swan Goose of Vedic belief was the vehicle of Saraswathi Hindu goddess wife of Brahma. For what I believe is a ancient carved image of
    Hamsa in New Mexico google: “Canadian Goose Bisti Badlands” for the view of this beautiful balanced rock formation. Also “Cracked Eggs” are the time honored Vedic symbols of creation. Google: “Bisti Badlands Cracked Eggs”
    for images of numerous cracked eggs there on the wilderness floor. At least one of these remains in incredible detail. Google: “Bent Hoodoo by Ned” for an impressive image of a Buddhist “Chattra”. Petrified wood has a special
    place in the religions of ancient India as well as the Native Americans of the Four Corners region and elsewhere. Google “Petrified Wood Logs Bisti Badlands” for huge petrified wood logs that appear to have been featured on
    raised earthen berms or platforms throughout the area. All these features are quite impressive and appear to tie back to Vajrayana Buddhism from ancient India. Is it a coincidence that there is an official Chinese trip journal of
    a party of five Gandharan monks from Greater India led by Hwui Shan dated to 502 CE that reportedly made a trip to Fu Sang thereby greatly altering the religious beliefs and the customs of the native people there? Is it possible
    that what the Chinese knew of and called Fu Sang we know of today as the North American Pacific Coast? “Mandalas, Mantras, Manjis and Monuments”

  2. Hendon Harris said

    Did the ancient Native Americans have a god of fire and if so what was his name? Based on evidence currently available I believe they did have a god of fire and his name is Agni. Agni is the fire god of ancient and modern India and all the religions that came out of India including Buddhism. I realize that this is a bold statement but there is evidence to support it in addition to the evidence of the numerous connections between the Puebloan people and Buddhism in my online article “Buddhist Customs, Symbols and Monuments North America”. We know that they had a sacred god of fire because they still use it in the Native America Seven Step Seven Vow Wedding ceremony celebrated as the most common wedding used today in North America by our First Nations people. They walk around the sacred flame clockwise in seven steps exactly like they do in India. In India there is no doubt who that sacred flame is– It’s Agni. But what about the Anasazi. They’ve been gone since about 1300 CE but their ruins are extant and available for easy viewing. The largest rooms in their pueblos were/are known as kivas. These are ceremonial rooms and all or almost all of them have huge fire pits in them. What is noteworthy about these pits is that they are similar in shape and design to the fire pits (homa or havan) used by Tibetan Buddhists in their worship of Agni. This might just be a coincidence but I don’t believe so given the scores of other clues unrelated to this particular custom that point to pre Columbian Buddhist influences in North America. Read Peter Gold’s book endorsed by the Dalai Lama himself “Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirit” or the online article written by University of New Mexico professor, Jeannie Martinez Welles: “Dimensions of Dine and Buddhist Traditions” or “Agni
    Hindu God of Fire–The Buddha Garden. Evidence is no longer coincidental or random when it keeps showing up in different forms that support a particular thesis. At some point the academiic world and others have to admit
    that a pattern or mosaic is developing and the picture of religion is ancient North America is becoming clearer and clearer as the mosaic pictures of evidence are added to the total.

  3. Hendon Harris said

    Buddhist missionary monk Hwui Shan in 502 CE used a Chinese land measurement the li to describe some of the distances between locations he encountered on his way to a place called Fu Sang and while he was there. In the
    3rd Century a Chinese author used the same land measurement to describe the width of a land mass from the ocean on the west coast of Fu Sang to the huge ocean on the other side. These measurements when converted
    into miles are consistent with what we know the actual distances to be and in my opinion connects his travel journal to a continent with which we are very familiar. Google: “Hwui Shan’s – The Land of Women: I believe I can show you…..”

  4. Hendon Harris said

    The world is getting smaller as we can immediately access images of places that are now instantly available through the internet. We can now see countless images of places and things that we know we will not live to see in person. We can google “The Bisti Badlands Images” “Mushroom Rocks Park Kansas” “Snake Dancers Rock Walpi Village “The Cobra Fisher Towers” and numerous others to see what so many have told us are amazing formations randomly created by erosion. But then we can also google “Hoh Nang Usa Rock Images” “Pa Hin Ngam Natl Park Images” and “Phu Pha Thoep Natl Park Images” to zip over to Thailand and see almost the
    exact same rock formations there. Interestingly this part of Thailand is acknowledged to have been a part of the Dvaravati Buddhist culture of ancient times. In fact wherever these types of rock formations show up in Asia there
    has been an ancient Buddhist historical connection. For reasons we may never know ancient Buddhists loved to carve rock. Its a fact. Look at the Ellora Caves in India and Giant Buddhas of Afghanistan images done in the 5th
    century or earlier. If it were just the rocks however it might be difficult to claim an ancient Buddhist connection here. But it you combine the rock evidence with the other symbols and cultural traits the Natives here share with Vedic
    India and Buddhism its hard to impossible to ignore. “Buddhist Symbols Customs North America”.

  5. Hendon Harris said

    Whether or not the Vedic Torana is ever positively connected to the numerous
    land bridges, rock windows and arches in the Four Corners certain facts are
    evident. We know through the great work of those who have prepared “The Tour
    of the Big 14” land bridges that these largest arches are not scattered around the
    globe. Twelve of the top 14 (or 16) are clustered in China and in the Four Corners of the Pacific Southwest specifically. Of the other two one was recently found in
    Afghanistan (Gandhara) an ancient highly advanced Buddhist civilization on the Silk Road connecting Europe and the Middle East with China. Gandhara was also
    home to the huge stone carved Giant Buddhas of the 5th century or earlier. The
    remaining arch (Aloha Arch) is in Chad, Africa. Google: “Forgotten Wonders in the Dead Heart of Africa”. The surrounding rock formations there bear a striking similarity with numerous formations in Arches Natl Park and the Bisti Badlands.
    Google: “Abandoned Natural Arches” How is a “natural arch” abandoned and who would it have been that “abandoned” these arches?

  6. Hendon Harris said

    The Torana is the Sanskrit name of the Vedic arch or frame. The primary function of the Torana was to be the ornate frame for the deity or other religious shrine that was the primary focus to be highlighted by the Torana.
    Google: “Torana gateway arch” for more details or “The Giant Buddhas Afghanistan”. If you see the alcoves where the Giant Buddhas were originally carved in the 5th century before they were recently destroyed you
    will be looking at a classical example of an ancient Buddhist frame or Torana. Most of them were much smaller of course and much more ornate. Were the numerous North American “natural arches” originally Vedic Toranas?

  7. Hendon Harris said

    Rainbow Bridge, one of the largest land bridges (arches) in the world, is one of the most sacred sites to the Navajo and several other tribes of the Four Corners. The
    Capitol of the Navajo Nation is at Window Rock, Arizona. Window Rock is another beautiful arch type rock feature. Obviously, then arches and similar formations have a special meaning to them. So special in fact that the Navajo unsuccessfully sued the U.S government to prevent tourists from coming to
    Rainbow Bridge and walking under the arch. There are scores of other arches
    throughout the Four Corners of which Delicate Arch, a stand alone formation on
    the lip of a cliff, is probably the most recognized. What is amazing is that Delicate
    Arch is not unique. Anasazi Arch in the New Mexico wilderness is amazingly similar to the symmetrical shape as well as the apparent cuts near the bases of both arches’ legs. Arches are also a commonly seen and used religious symbols of all religions from ancient India. Google: “Pa Kung Temple Roi Et Thailand Images”, “Arches in Hindu Temple Images” and “Arch in Delhi commemorates India-Mexico Friendship”. Rainbow Bridge is listed in “The Tour of the Big 14” landbridge arches throughout the world. An interesting fact of this list is that 12 of these 1 are located in either China or the Four Corners. One of the two others was recently found in Afghanistan (ancient Gandhara) the origination point of Buddhist monk Hwui Shan before he left for Fu Sang. Arches are another symbol revered by both ancient Buddhists as well as the Puebloan people.

  8. Hendon Harris said

    Chess and the chessboard originated in either India or China. Either way the chessboard came from Asia. Then why is this pattern displayed in such a prominent way all over the western United States? Google: “The Homer H Dubs Priest Lake , Idaho Chessboard Grid System” for the answer to this question.

  9. Hendon Harris said

    For an informative book on the great similarities between the ancient Navajo tribal culture and faith and Tibetan Buddhism read “Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirit” by Peter Gold. The book has an
    endorsement letter from the Dalai Lama, the current head of Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism, himself. Whether you choose to believe this hypothesis now or not these similarities if true explain several mysteries and rock carved
    art in the Pacific Southwest such as Newspaper Rock, the manji (swastika) used as art and jewelry in this area as well as customs still used by our indigenous people such as the Seven Step Seven Vow Wedding Ceremony.
    This ceremony was celebrated clockwise around a “sacred flame”. Was this the same “sacred flame” (perhaps the one known as the fire god Agni to generations of Buddhists) that was used in the Kiva fire pits by the Anasazi people? If this was true it would amazingly tie so many loose ends together but it would also demonstrate that contrary to common scholarly positions and countless books that there were indeed pre Columbian but recent Asian contacts in North America. How can anyone explain away all these “coincidences”?

  10. For an incredible view of what I believe may be art and proof of a connection between the Anasazi people and Buddhism google: “The Canadian Goose Bisti” “The Sleeping Lizard Bisti” “The Flying Turtle Bisti” and any of the
    numerous images sites that will show you the rock formations there. Google: “Were the Anasazi People Buddhist?”

  11. On Newspaper Rock there are scrapped images of men with horns on their heads. Nothing unusual about that as Native American tribal elders including Medicine Men have been known to wear headdress that included North American Bison horns since
    ancient times. What is noteworthy about this is that two geoglyphs have been
    located in Colorado not far from Newspaper Rock. These forms can be accessed
    by googling; “Ancient Buddha Tree of Life Lotus Flower”. The image on the right although huge resembles the favorite Tibetan Deity Yamantaka and the one on the left the Tibetan Three Jewels or Vajra symbol. Detailed images of Yamantaka available on the internet and elsewhere show Yamantaka with the horn configuration not of the Yak or the Water Buffalo familiar to Tibetans but with the horn set of the North American Bison. How did this happen? How and when did Tibetans become familiar with this species? Why are there so many Vedic (ancient India) symbols and customs showing up in the Pacific Southwest.
    The number 108 has significance in all Vedic based religions (including Buddhism). Why is it then that the settlement cities of the ancient Anasazi culture in North America were built within a fairly tight range of the 108th Meridian West for hundreds of miles north and south and ultimately ending on the west coast of Mexico? Were the Anasazi people possibly Buddhist? Were they the source of the numerous drawings, carvings, symbols and customs that appear to have a Vedic origin? The Hopi tribe is reported to have been the people with the closest cultural ties with the Anasazi. Is that why there seem to be so many ties between Tibetan Buddhism and that specific Native American tribal culture. These similarities include jewelry styles and materials, language contrasts, the Manji (swastika) that the Hopi still call by its original name in Sanskrit “The Whirlwind”, sand paintings as well as numerous other possible links. I believe there is enough evidence available now that experts (scholars) should be doing research into this subject.

  12. Hendon Harris said

    Is there an ancient rock carved Persian Manticore in Arches National Park, Utah?
    If so how could it have possibly arrived there? Which group of ancient people had
    the skills and the knowledge of the manticore to reproduce it in ancient Utah?
    Google: “The King Arches National Park”. Take a look at these detailed pictures
    of both sides of the rock and then form your own opinion.

  13. In studying Native American art such as the well
    known “sand paintings” and the lesser known
    medicine wheels and medicine shields one has
    to be surprised or at least amazed by the similarities between this Native America art form
    and its almost identical art form “cousin” the
    mandala which originated in India and spread
    throughout ancient Asia. Is this another example
    in that growing list of cultural transfers between
    ancient India and North America that continues to expand or can this simply be another randon coincidence? What do you think? Google:
    “Native American Medicine Wheels and Shields”
    and and

  14. From the beginnings of Buddhism it has shared much in common with another religion that also started in India-Hinduism. This commonality in many ways has existed for centuries and is why Hwai
    Shan’s Buddhist expedition in 458 AD appears to have carried numerous Hindu influences with it. The swastika used in several Native American tribes is an example. The Hindu Seven Step wedding
    ceremony is now a long established wedding tradition among our native tribes. Compare the similarities of the ancient beliefs of
    the East Indians, the Chinese and the Native Americans concerning the role of the tortoise in the creation of the world or how about
    the contrasts between the Chinese dragon and the American Horned Snake which possessed almost identical powers. Check this out.
    I believe these influences have had a profound impact on the art
    found in the Americas

  15. There are still some of us who remain ignorant to the degree of technological
    success that had been achieved in ancient China and the rest of Asia. For
    anyone who doesn’t have the time or the money to buy and read Dr Robert
    Temple’s well researched and interesting book The Genius of China there is a
    shortcut to this information. All you need is about 10 minutes and a computer.
    When you are at that point google “The Grand Canal, China”.
    The Grand Canal was started in the 4th or 5th century BC and subsequently completed in stages until it was finally completed in the 7th century AD. This was
    the longest canal in the history of the world. This engineered project was constructed by the efforts of millions of Chinese and greatly aided in the transport of grain throughout China over the years. Parts of it are still in use
    Did you know that the largest palace in human history was Weiyang Palace in
    Chang ‘an China now known as Xi’an China? This palace was constructed BC
    and was probably most famous during the Former Han Dynasty. It was finally
    totally destroyed during the Tang Dynasty in the 7th century AD.
    Ancient Asians having accomplished these proven and acknowledged feats of
    construction in China certainly would not have had any difficulty in constructing the geoglyphs, balanced rock formations, stupas and water diversion projects
    here in North America if they had in fact made it here as I have suggested.

  16. How can this be explained away as a natural rock formation?

  17. There is a somewhat unconventional form of Asian totem art that has been common in Asia
    from ancient times up to the present. In my opinion its roots precede all commonly known
    existing religions and goes back to the fertility
    rites of ancient Shamanism. Today both crude
    and refined versions of this can be found in the
    Hindu Shiva Lingum as well as in Taoism, Shintoism and other Asian religions. It is an undeniable Asian art form called Asian/Chinese
    Genitalia Totems. ( WARNING: These images are graphic and are not for everyone.) For those
    choosing to proceed google the following sites: 1) Chinese Genitalia Totems– Go to “images” section
    2) Phallic/ Phallus Rocks Arches National Park
    Utah Images
    3) China’s Sky Pillar Changchun City
    4) jetpacker nature porn (worldwide images)
    These are just a fraction of the examples available on the internet. This information is
    significant because it places Asian art and culture in North America. How could this be in
    the Americas without Asian contact?
    The modern day Chinese “sky pillar” is called the largest in the world only because we “moderns” have not yet been able to accept
    that these ancient genital art rock carved totems
    are in fact man made. (and not simply incredible
    random acts of nature which look exactly like what they would look like if they were in fact made by the ancients which I believe they were.)
    These images were never intended to be what
    some in our society consider pornography. These ancient shamanistic based religious
    devotees worshipped nature and what might I ask is more basic to the continuation of mankind
    than reproduction and thus the reverence for
    the body parts by which this is accomplished.
    Again, this was/is a significant part of shamanism. I have brought this somewhat
    uncomfortable topic to your attention because this connection is huge in showing the Asian
    cultural and religious art cross pollination in
    not only North America but in several other countries around the ancient world.

  18. I am becoming aware of so many beautiful rock formations in the American Southwest and I am amazed at their beauty and the possibility of what they
    may represent. As I have been studying ancient stupa construction in India
    during the early years of Buddhism I keep stumbling across the parasol on the
    tops of stupas during the 3rd century of the common era and onward for many
    centuries. At some point in history although the parasol remained in The Eight
    Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism it seemed to have lost it one time ancient
    importance and influence in Buddhist art. When you see it in modern Buddhist
    art it is usually understated. But That Wasn’t Always the Case!
    Recently I came across the image of The Mexican Hat Rock Utah. Google:
    Mexican Hat Rock Utah Images for great images of this formation. What seemed
    to immediately jump out at me from the images was the fact that the rock on top looked like a mushroom on top of a pile of rocks (stupa). That is noteworthy
    because the Sanskrit word for “parasol” is “chhatra” which literally means
    “mushroom”. I was perplexed because I could not find anything to illustrate my
    point. That was until today when I found what I was looking for in The Buckingham Collections. In their world famous collection of ancient art they have a small image of a stupa from the 2nd or 3rd century that can demonstrate to you what I could only modestly attempt verbally. Google: “rock crystal bronze
    stupa Gandhara” Here you see how the ancient Buddhists portrayed their
    precious Parasol (chhatra) on the tops of their stupas. Does that help you
    understand the significance of the ROCK on the top of Mexican Hat Rock?
    Does it also raise questions about why in the American southwest there are
    so very many huge boulders balanced so perfectly on the tops of much smaller
    rocks? Is it possible that this coincidence of amazing erosion occurs only in
    North America?

  19. havealittletalk said

    And then there are the sand paintings, too…

  20. How is it possible that a complex wedding ceremony from ancient India would show up in ancient North America in the exact same form and be used by several Native American tribes to this very day as a part of their wonderful
    tradition? That wedding ceremony is known as the Seven Step/Seven Vow ritual around the sacred flame done in a clockwise rotation Could it be that it arrived here at the same or approximate time as the Buddhist/Hindu Manji (Swastika) that is still used in the art and jewelry of the Hopi and Navajo tribes? What about the geoglyhs of ancient art from India found in Colorado and seen only from high altitude?
    As research continues more evidence is coming in that ancient Buddhists and
    Hindus were apparently here in North America in times past. If you are having
    a problem getting your mind around the ability of the ancients to travel then just
    focus on the travels of the ancient Buddhist/Hindu monks who documented their
    trips. Those journals along with the evidence on the ground of huge rock carvings as well as rituals left behind etc leave more than ample evidence that
    those missionary trips were actually made and the monks left a cultural impact
    wherever they went.

  21. The history of western civilization is interesting and empowering to those of us whose history it tells. However it’s no more than half the whole story. There is so much more to be told about how the east fits into the total picture. Yes, in the
    last 500 or so years the west has led the world in many major areas and has
    dominated but it wasn’t always so. Take ancient Buddhism as an example. I am
    using Buddhism as an example in this blog because ancient Buddhists were extremely accomplished stone carvers and I believe it can be demonstrated that
    they left behind enormous rock carvings around the world that can be seen and
    Identified to this very day. Google: The History of Buddhism/ Wikipedia
    Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great approximately 230 BCE Buddhism
    became widespread throughout the Hellenistic world. Kings and common men
    embraced Buddhism and missionary monks and local monks joined monasteries
    and taught and learned how to do the massive rock carvings that was a major part of of their religious experience wherever they travelled and lived. If you believe I am overstating the case google The Ellora Caves and The Afghanistan
    Giant Buddhas to understand the importance of this activity to their faith. These
    projects were HUGE. Over time cultures and religions have shifted. Buddhism
    was no exception. Although originated in India it has been replaced by Hinduism. In Afghanistan and Pakistan it was replaced by Islam and in Europe
    and the Americas by Christianity.
    Recently I saw a picture of what appears to be a rock carved Shiva Linga on
    the grounds of the mountaintop monasteries at Meteora Greece. I then made
    note of what appears to be Shiva Lingas and images of Buddha in the area of
    The Montserrat Monasteries near Barcelona Spain. Montserrat translated means
    sawed or cut mountains. In my opinion these images are almost identical to the rock carving done on Church Rock Utah USA by whom I believe were also Buddhist/Hindu monks led by Hwai Shan who led an expedition here in 458 AD.
    The study of western civilization will only tell you a portion of the exciting story
    of our planet. From the beginning days of the Silk Road BC the ancients were
    traveling much more than the modern world seems willing to acknowledge.

  22. There is a wheel and a horse on Newspaper Rock but they are both conspicuously absent from ancient
    American culture. The absence of the wheel is the most troubling of the two because either by
    cultural diffusion or by evolutionary diffusion at least the wheel should have appeared as it had all over
    the world for industrial use. Note that wheels have been found on ancient toys in S America so they
    were known for religious purposes and for toys. (But why not for working purposes?)
    Ancient horse remains have been found with multiple arrows on the scene leaving researchers to believe that ancient horses in America were hunted for food to the point of extinction and that is why
    horses disappeared from the Amenca.
    I have a possible alternative theory. The Chinese have a saying “where there are horses there is success”. The opposite to that by default is. No Horses No Success. If at the end of the Shang
    Dynasty the Chinese had invaded America to crush a rival society as relayed in the Chinese myth
    of TheTen Sun/ Ravens what if they ruled after their success that wheels and horses would no longer
    be allowed and all horses were killed not for food but to be eliminated. I understand that this can
    not be proven at this point. But then how do you account for the lack of the use of the wheel for labor
    while it was obviously known or why Native Americans suddenly chose to eat the horse the primary
    source of transportation around the rest of the world to the point of extinction.

  23. On January 28, 2011 I referred to the mounted archer depicted on Newspaper Rock, Utah. Recently I’ve come upon an article published in American Anthropology (1940). “The Aboriginal
    Bow and Arrow of North America and Eastern Asia” by Spencer L. Roger represents archery research on both sides of the Pacific. He writes North
    America was “invaded by the compound bow at its north eastern extremity” page 257. Asiatic style bow design and Mongolian arrow release techniques
    are discovered in the Siouan family of
    tribes (Plains Indians). How did this
    happen? Was it Asian influence or another case of mere coincidence?

  24. Thank you to those of you maintaining this site!! Its great. I find it interesting that the archer near the wheel on Newspaper Rock who has just released an inflight arrow toward a deer or elk appears to be sitting on a horse. I don’t know how you can claim its anything else unless you’ve totally accepted the conventional
    wisdom on the topic which is that the Spanish brought the horse to
    North America. There is growing evidence that this may not be true. One of these evidences is a geoglyph of a Tang Dynasty style horse in Colorado and Wyoming. You can access it by googling “hendon’s horse” or by going to my blog . In my opinion the history of the pre-Columbian Americas is much more fascinating than we know.

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